Jel Codes

  1. General Economics and Teaching


A1          General Economics

A10        General

A11        Role of Economics • Role of Economists • Market for Economists

A12        Relation of Economics to Other Disciplines

A13        Relation of Economics to Social Values

A14        Sociology of Economics

A19        Other


A2          Economic Education and Teaching of Economics

A20        General

A21        Pre-college

A22        Undergraduate

A23        Graduate

A29        Other


A3          Collective Works

A30        General

A31        Collected Writings of Individuals

A32        Collective Volumes

A33        Handbooks

A39        Other


  1. History of Economic Thought, Methodology, and Heterodox Approaches


B00        General


B1           History of Economic Thought through 1925

B10        General

B11        Preclassical (Ancient, Medieval, Mercantilist, Physiocratic)

B12        Classical (includes Adam Smith)

B13        Neoclassical through 1925 (Austrian, Marshallian, Walrasian, Wicksellian)†

B14        Socialist • Marxist

B15        Historical • Institutional • Evolutionary

B16        Quantitative and Mathematical

B17        International Trade and Finance

B19        Other


B2           History of Economic Thought since 1925

B20        General

B21        Microeconomics

B22        Macroeconomics

B23        Econometrics • Quantitative and Mathematical Studies

B24        Socialist • Marxist • Sraffian

B25        Historical • Institutional • Evolutionary • Austrian • Stockholm School†

B26        Financial Economics

B27        International Trade and Finance

B29        Other


B3           History of Economic Thought: Individuals

B30        General

B31        Individuals

B32        Obituaries


B4           Economic Methodology

B40        General

B41        Economic Methodology

B49        Other


B5           Current Heterodox Approaches

B50        General

B51        Socialist • Marxian • Sraffian

B52        Historical • Institutional • Evolutionary†

B53        Austrian

B54        Feminist Economics

B59        Other


  1. Mathematical and Quantitative Methods


C00        General

C01        Econometrics

C02        Mathematical Methods


C1           Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General

C10        General

C11        Bayesian Analysis: General

C12        Hypothesis Testing: General

C13        Estimation: General

C14        Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General

C15        Statistical Simulation Methods: General

C18        Methodological Issues: General

C19        Other


C2           Single Equation Models • Single Variables

C20        General

C21        Cross-Sectional Models • Spatial Models • Treatment Effect Models • Quantile Regressions

C22        Time-Series Models • Dynamic Quantile Regressions • Dynamic Treatment Effect Models • Diffusion Processes

C23        Panel Data Models • Spatio-temporal Models

C24        Truncated and Censored Models • Switching Regression Models • Threshold Regression Models

C25        Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models • Discrete Regressors • Proportions • Probabilities

C26        Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation

C29        Other


C3           Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models • Multiple Variables

C30        General

C31        Cross-Sectional Models • Spatial Models • Treatment Effect Models • Quantile Regressions • Social Interaction Models

C32        Time-Series Models • Dynamic Quantile Regressions • Dynamic Treatment Effect Models • Diffusion Processes • State Space Models

C33        Panel Data Models • Spatio-temporal Models

C34        Truncated and Censored Models • Switching Regression Models

C35        Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models • Discrete Regressors • Proportions

C36        Instrumental Variables (IV) Estimation

C38        Classification Methods • Cluster Analysis • Principal Components • Factor Models

C39        Other


C4           Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics

C40        General

C41        Duration Analysis • Optimal Timing Strategies

C43        Index Numbers and Aggregation

C44        Operations Research • Statistical Decision Theory

C45        Neural Networks and Related Topics

C46        Specific Distributions • Specific Statistics

C49        Other


C5           Econometric Modeling

C50        General

C51        Model Construction and Estimation

C52        Model Evaluation, Validation, and Selection

C53        Forecasting and Prediction Methods • Simulation Methods

C54        Quantitative Policy Modeling

C55        Large Data Sets: Modeling and Analysis

C57        Econometrics of Games and Auctions

C58        Financial Econometrics

C59        Other


C6           Mathematical Methods • Programming Models • Mathematical and Simulation Modeling

C60        General

C61        Optimization Techniques • Programming Models • Dynamic Analysis

C62        Existence and Stability Conditions of Equilibrium

C63        Computational Techniques • Simulation Modeling

C65        Miscellaneous Mathematical Tools

C67        Input–Output Models

C68        Computable General Equilibrium Models

C69        Other


C7           Game Theory and Bargaining Theory

C70        General

C71        Cooperative Games

C72        Noncooperative Games

C73        Stochastic and Dynamic Games • Evolutionary Games • Repeated Games

C78        Bargaining Theory • Matching Theory

C79        Other


C8           Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology • Computer Programs

C80        General

C81        Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data • Data Access

C82        Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data • Data Access

C83        Survey Methods • Sampling Methods

C87        Econometric Software

C88        Other Computer Software

C89        Other


C9           Design of Experiments

C90        General

C91        Laboratory, Individual Behavior

C92        Laboratory, Group Behavior

C93        Field Experiments

C99        Other


  1. Microeconomics


D00        General

D01        Microeconomic Behavior: Underlying Principles

D02        Institutions: Design, Formation, Operations, and Impact

D04        Microeconomic Policy: Formulation, Implementation, and Evaluation


D1          Household Behavior and Family Economics

D10        General

D11        Consumer Economics: Theory

D12        Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis

D13        Household Production and Intrahousehold Allocation

D14        Household Saving • Personal Finance

D15        Intertemporal Household Choice • Life Cycle Models and Saving

D18        Consumer Protection

D19        Other


D2          Production and Organizations

D20        General

D21        Firm Behavior: Theory

D22        Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis

D23        Organizational Behavior • Transaction Costs • Property Rights

D24        Production • Cost • Capital • Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity • Capacity

D25        Intertemporal Firm Choice, Investment, Capacity, and Financing

D29        Other


D3          Distribution

D30        General

D31        Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions

D33        Factor Income Distribution

D39        Other


D4          Market Structure, Pricing, and Design

D40        General

D41        Perfect Competition

D42        Monopoly

D43        Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection

D44        Auctions

D45        Rationing • Licensing

D46        Value Theory

D47        Market Design

D49        Other


D5          General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium

D50        General

D51        Exchange and Production Economies

D52        Incomplete Markets

D53        Financial Markets

D57        Input–Output Tables and Analysis

D58        Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models

D59        Other


D6          Welfare Economics

D60        General

D61        Allocative Efficiency • Cost–Benefit Analysis

D62        Externalities

D63        Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement

D64        Altruism • Philanthropy • Intergenerational Transfers

D69        Other


D7          Analysis of Collective Decision-Making

D70        General

D71        Social Choice • Clubs • Committees • Associations

D72        Political Processes: Rent-Seeking, Lobbying, Elections, Legislatures, and Voting Behavior

D73        Bureaucracy • Administrative Processes in Public Organizations • Corruption

D74        Conflict • Conflict Resolution • Alliances • Revolutions

D78        Positive Analysis of Policy Formulation and Implementation

D79        Other


D8          Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty

D80        General

D81        Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty

D82        Asymmetric and Private Information • Mechanism Design

D83        Search • Learning • Information and Knowledge • Communication • Belief • Unawareness

D84        Expectations • Speculations

D85        Network Formation and Analysis: Theory

D86        Economics of Contract: Theory

D87        Neuroeconomics

D89        Other


D9          Micro-Based Behavioral Economics‡

D90        General‡

D91        Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on Decision Making‡


  1. Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics


E00         General

E01         Measurement and Data on National Income and Product Accounts and Wealth • Environmental Accounts

E02         Institutions and the Macroeconomy


E1           General Aggregative Models

E10         General

E11         Marxian • Sraffian • Kaleckian

E12         Keynes • Keynesian • Post-Keynesian

E13         Neoclassical

E14         Austrian • Evolutionary • Institutional

E16         Social Accounting Matrix

E17         Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications

E19         Other


E2           Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy

E20         General

E21         Consumption • Saving • Wealth

E22         Investment • Capital • Intangible Capital • Capacity

E23         Production

E24         Employment • Unemployment • Wages • Intergenerational Income Distribution • Aggregate Human Capital • Aggregate Labor Productivity

E25         Aggregate Factor Income Distribution

E26         Informal Economy • Underground Economy

E27         Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications

E29         Other


E3           Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles

E30         General

E31         Price Level • Inflation • Deflation

E32         Business Fluctuations • Cycles

E37         Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications

E39         Other


E4           Money and Interest Rates

E40         General

E41         Demand for Money

E42         Monetary Systems • Standards • Regimes • Government and the Monetary System • Payment Systems

E43         Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects

E44         Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy

E47         Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications

E49         Other


E5           Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit

E50         General

E51         Money Supply • Credit • Money Multipliers

E52         Monetary Policy

E58         Central Banks and Their Policies

E59         Other


E6           Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook

E60         General

E61         Policy Objectives • Policy Designs and Consistency • Policy Coordination

E62         Fiscal Policy

E63         Comparative or Joint Analysis of Fiscal and Monetary Policy • Stabilization • Treasury Policy

E64         Incomes Policy • Price Policy

E65         Studies of Particular Policy Episodes

E66         General Outlook and Conditions

E69         Other


E7           Macro-Based Behavioral Economics‡

E70         General‡

E71         Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on the Macro Economy‡


  1. International Economics


F00         General

F01         Global Outlook

F02         International Economic Order and Integration


F1           Trade

F10         General

F11         Neoclassical Models of Trade

F12         Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies • Fragmentation

F13         Trade Policy • International Trade Organizations

F14         Empirical Studies of Trade

F15         Economic Integration

F16         Trade and Labor Market Interactions

F17         Trade Forecasting and Simulation

F18         Trade and Environment

F19         Other


F2           International Factor Movements and International Business

F20         General

F21         International Investment • Long-Term Capital Movements

F22         International Migration

F23         Multinational Firms • International Business

F24         Remittances

F29         Other


F3           International Finance

F30         General

F31         Foreign Exchange

F32         Current Account Adjustment • Short-Term Capital Movements

F33         International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions

F34         International Lending and Debt Problems

F35         Foreign Aid

F36         Financial Aspects of Economic Integration

F37         International Finance Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications

F38         International Financial Policy: Financial Transactions Tax; Capital Controls

F39         Other


F4           Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance

F40         General

F41         Open Economy Macroeconomics

F42         International Policy Coordination and Transmission

F43         Economic Growth of Open Economies

F44         International Business Cycles

F45         Macroeconomic Issues of Monetary Unions

F47         Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications

F49         Other


F5           International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy

F50         General

F51         International Conflicts • Negotiations • Sanctions

F52         National Security • Economic Nationalism

F53         International Agreements and Observance • International Organizations

F54         Colonialism • Imperialism • Postcolonialism

F55         International Institutional Arrangements

F59         Other


F6           Economic Impacts of Globalization

F60         General

F61         Microeconomic Impacts

F62         Macroeconomic Impacts

F63         Economic Development

F64         Environment

F65         Finance

F66         Labor

F68         Policy

F69         Other


  1. Financial Economics


G00        General

G01        Financial Crises


G1          General Financial Markets

G10        General

G11        Portfolio Choice • Investment Decisions

G12        Asset Pricing • Trading Volume • Bond Interest Rates

G13        Contingent Pricing • Futures Pricing

G14        Information and Market Efficiency • Event Studies • Insider Trading

G15        International Financial Markets

G17        Financial Forecasting and Simulation

G18        Government Policy and Regulation

G19        Other


G2          Financial Institutions and Services

G20        General

G21        Banks • Depository Institutions • Micro Finance Institutions • Mortgages

G22        Insurance • Insurance Companies • Actuarial Studies

G23        Non-bank Financial Institutions • Financial Instruments • Institutional Investors

G24        Investment Banking • Venture Capital • Brokerage • Ratings and Ratings Agencies

G28        Government Policy and Regulation

G29        Other


G3          Corporate Finance and Governance

G30        General

G31        Capital Budgeting • Fixed Investment and Inventory Studies • Capacity

G32        Financing Policy • Financial Risk and Risk Management • Capital and Ownership Structure • Value of Firms • Goodwill

G33        Bankruptcy • Liquidation

G34        Mergers • Acquisitions • Restructuring • Corporate Governance

G35        Payout Policy

G38        Government Policy and Regulation

G39        Other


G4          Behavioral Finance‡

G40        General‡

G41        Role and Effects of Psychological, Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Factors on Decision Making in Financial Markets‡


  1. Public Economics


H00        General


H1          Structure and Scope of Government

H10        General

H11        Structure, Scope, and Performance of Government

H12        Crisis Management

H13        Economics of Eminent Domain • Expropriation • Nationalization

H19        Other


H2          Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue

H20        General

H21        Efficiency • Optimal Taxation

H22        Incidence

H23        Externalities • Redistributive Effects • Environmental Taxes and Subsidies

H24        Personal Income and Other Nonbusiness Taxes and Subsidies

H25        Business Taxes and Subsidies

H26        Tax Evasion and Avoidance

H27        Other Sources of Revenue

H29        Other


H3          Fiscal Policies and Behavior of Economic Agents

H30        General

H31        Household

H32        Firm

H39        Other


H4          Publicly Provided Goods

H40        General

H41        Public Goods

H42        Publicly Provided Private Goods

H43        Project Evaluation • Social Discount Rate

H44        Publicly Provided Goods: Mixed Markets

H49        Other


H5          National Government Expenditures and Related Policies

H50        General

H51        Government Expenditures and Health

H52        Government Expenditures and Education

H53        Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs

H54        Infrastructures • Other Public Investment and Capital Stock

H55        Social Security and Public Pensions

H56        National Security and War

H57        Procurement

H59        Other


H6          National Budget, Deficit, and Debt

H60        General

H61        Budget • Budget Systems

H62        Deficit • Surplus

H63        Debt • Debt Management • Sovereign Debt

H68        Forecasts of Budgets, Deficits, and Debt

H69        Other


H7          State and Local Government • Intergovernmental Relations

H70        General

H71        State and Local Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue

H72        State and Local Budget and Expenditures

H73        Interjurisdictional Differentials and Their Effects

H74        State and Local Borrowing

H75        State and Local Government: Health • Education • Welfare • Public Pensions

H76        State and Local Government: Other Expenditure Categories

H77        Intergovernmental Relations • Federalism • Secession

H79        Other


H8          Miscellaneous Issues

H80        General

H81        Governmental Loans • Loan Guarantees • Credits • Grants • Bailouts

H82        Governmental Property

H83        Public Administration • Public Sector Accounting and Audits

H84        Disaster Aid

H87        International Fiscal Issues • International Public Goods

H89        Other


  1. Health, Education, and Welfare


I00          General


I1            Health

I10          General

I11          Analysis of Health Care Markets

I12          Health Behavior

I13          Health Insurance, Public and Private

I14          Health and Inequality

I15          Health and Economic Development

I18          Government Policy • Regulation • Public Health

I19          Other


I2            Education and Research Institutions

I20          General

I21          Analysis of Education

I22          Educational Finance • Financial Aid

I23          Higher Education • Research Institutions

I24          Education and Inequality

I25          Education and Economic Development

I26          Returns to Education

I28          Government Policy

I29          Other


I3            Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty

I30          General

I31          General Welfare, Well-Being

I32          Measurement and Analysis of Poverty

I38          Government Policy • Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs

I39          Other


  1. Labor and Demographic Economics


J00         General

J01         Labor Economics: General

J08         Labor Economics Policies


J1            Demographic Economics

J10         General

J11         Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts

J12         Marriage • Marital Dissolution • Family Structure • Domestic Abuse

J13         Fertility • Family Planning • Child Care • Children • Youth

J14         Economics of the Elderly • Economics of the Handicapped • Non-Labor Market Discrimination

J15         Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants • Non-labor Discrimination

J16         Economics of Gender • Non-labor Discrimination

J17         Value of Life • Forgone Income

J18         Public Policy

J19         Other


J2            Demand and Supply of Labor

J20         General

J21         Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure

J22         Time Allocation and Labor Supply

J23         Labor Demand

J24         Human Capital • Skills • Occupational Choice • Labor Productivity

J26         Retirement • Retirement Policies

J28         Safety • Job Satisfaction • Related Public Policy

J29         Other


J3            Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs

J30         General

J31         Wage Level and Structure • Wage Differentials

J32         Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits • Retirement Plans • Private Pensions

J33         Compensation Packages • Payment Methods

J38         Public Policy

J39         Other


J4            Particular Labor Markets

J40         General

J41         Labor Contracts

J42         Monopsony • Segmented Labor Markets

J43         Agricultural Labor Markets

J44         Professional Labor Markets • Occupational Licensing

J45         Public Sector Labor Markets

J46         Informal Labor Markets

J47         Coercive Labor Markets

J48         Public Policy

J49         Other


J5            Labor–Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining

J50         General

J51         Trade Unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects

J52         Dispute Resolution: Strikes, Arbitration, and Mediation • Collective Bargaining

J53         Labor–Management Relations • Industrial Jurisprudence

J54         Producer Cooperatives • Labor Managed Firms • Employee Ownership

J58         Public Policy

J59         Other


J6            Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers

J60         General

J61         Geographic Labor Mobility • Immigrant Workers

J62         Job, Occupational, and Intergenerational Mobility

J63         Turnover • Vacancies • Layoffs

J64         Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search

J65         Unemployment Insurance • Severance Pay • Plant Closings

J68         Public Policy

J69         Other


J7            Labor Discrimination

J70         General

J71         Discrimination

J78         Public Policy

J79         Other


J8            Labor Standards: National and International

J80         General

J81         Working Conditions

J82         Labor Force Composition

J83         Workers’ Rights

J88         Public Policy

J89         Other


  1. Law and Economics


K00        General


K1           Basic Areas of Law

K10        General

K11        Property Law

K12        Contract Law

K13        Tort Law and Product Liability • Forensic Economics

K14        Criminal Law

K15        Civil Law • Common Law‡

K16        Election Law‡

K19        Other


K2           Regulation and Business Law

K20        General

K21        Antitrust Law

K22        Business and Securities Law

K23        Regulated Industries and Administrative Law

K24        Cyber Law‡

K25        Real Estate Law‡

K29        Other


K3           Other Substantive Areas of Law

K30        General

K31        Labor Law

K32        Energy, Environmental, Health, and Safety Law†

K33        International Law

K34        Tax Law

K35        Personal Bankruptcy Law

K36        Family and Personal Law

K37        Immigration Law

K38        Human Rights Law • Gender Law‡

K39        Other


K4           Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior

K40        General

K41        Litigation Process

K42        Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law

K49        Other


  1. Industrial Organization


L00         General


L1           Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance

L10         General

L11         Production, Pricing, and Market Structure • Size Distribution of Firms

L12         Monopoly • Monopolization Strategies

L13         Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets

L14         Transactional Relationships • Contracts and Reputation • Networks

L15         Information and Product Quality • Standardization and Compatibility

L16         Industrial Organization and Macroeconomics: Industrial Structure and Structural Change • Industrial Price Indices

L17         Open Source Products and Markets

L19         Other


L2           Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior

L20         General

L21         Business Objectives of the Firm

L22         Firm Organization and Market Structure

L23         Organization of Production

L24         Contracting Out • Joint Ventures • Technology Licensing

L25         Firm Performance: Size, Diversification, and Scope

L26         Entrepreneurship

L29         Other


L3           Nonprofit Organizations and Public Enterprise

L30         General

L31         Nonprofit Institutions • NGOs • Social Entrepreneurship

L32         Public Enterprises • Public-Private Enterprises

L33         Comparison of Public and Private Enterprises and Nonprofit Institutions • Privatization • Contracting Out

L38         Public Policy

L39         Other


L4           Antitrust Issues and Policies

L40         General

L41         Monopolization • Horizontal Anticompetitive Practices

L42         Vertical Restraints • Resale Price Maintenance • Quantity Discounts

L43         Legal Monopolies and Regulation or Deregulation

L44         Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprises, Nonprofit Institutions, and Professional Organizations

L49         Other


L5           Regulation and Industrial Policy

L50         General

L51         Economics of Regulation

L52         Industrial Policy • Sectoral Planning Methods

L53         Enterprise Policy

L59         Other


L6           Industry Studies: Manufacturing

L60         General

L61         Metals and Metal Products • Cement • Glass • Ceramics

L62         Automobiles • Other Transportation Equipment • Related Parts and Equipment

L63         Microelectronics • Computers • Communications Equipment

L64         Other Machinery • Business Equipment • Armaments

L65         Chemicals • Rubber • Drugs • Biotechnology • Plastics†

L66         Food • Beverages • Cosmetics • Tobacco • Wine and Spirits

L67         Other Consumer Nondurables: Clothing, Textiles, Shoes, and Leather Goods; Household Goods; Sports Equipment

L68         Appliances • Furniture • Other Consumer Durables

L69         Other


L7           Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction

L70         General

L71         Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Hydrocarbon Fuels

L72         Mining, Extraction, and Refining: Other Nonrenewable Resources

L73         Forest Products

L74         Construction

L78         Government Policy

L79         Other


L8           Industry Studies: Services

L80         General

L81         Retail and Wholesale Trade • e-Commerce

L82         Entertainment • Media

L83         Sports • Gambling • Restaurants • Recreation • Tourism

L84         Personal, Professional, and Business Services

L85         Real Estate Services

L86         Information and Internet Services • Computer Software

L87         Postal and Delivery Services

L88         Government Policy

L89         Other


L9           Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities

L90         General

L91         Transportation: General

L92         Railroads and Other Surface Transportation

L93         Air Transportation

L94         Electric Utilities

L95         Gas Utilities • Pipelines • Water Utilities

L96         Telecommunications

L97         Utilities: General

L98         Government Policy

L99         Other


  1. Business Administration and Business Economics • Marketing • Accounting • Personnel Economics


M00       General


M1         Business Administration

M10       General

M11       Production Management

M12       Personnel Management • Executives; Executive Compensation

M13       New Firms • Startups

M14       Corporate Culture • Diversity • Social Responsibility

M15       IT Management

M16       International Business Administration

M19       Other


M2         Business Economics

M20       General

M21       Business Economics

M29       Other


M3         Marketing and Advertising

M30       General

M31       Marketing

M37       Advertising

M38       Government Policy and Regulation

M39       Other


M4         Accounting and Auditing

M40       General

M41       Accounting

M42       Auditing

M48       Government Policy and Regulation

M49       Other


M5         Personnel Economics

M50       General

M51       Firm Employment Decisions • Promotions

M52       Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects

M53       Training

M54       Labor Management

M55       Labor Contracting Devices

M59       Other


  1. Economic History


N00        General

N01        Development of the Discipline: Historiographical; Sources and Methods


N1          Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics • Industrial Structure • Growth • Fluctuations

N10        General, International, or Comparative

N11        U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N12        U.S. • Canada: 1913–

N13        Europe: Pre-1913

N14        Europe: 1913–

N15        Asia including Middle East

N16        Latin America • Caribbean

N17        Africa • Oceania


N2          Financial Markets and Institutions

N20        General, International, or Comparative

N21        U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N22        U.S. • Canada: 1913–

N23        Europe: Pre-1913

N24        Europe: 1913–

N25        Asia including Middle East

N26        Latin America • Caribbean

N27        Africa • Oceania


N3          Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy

N30        General, International, or Comparative

N31        U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N32        U.S. • Canada: 1913-

N33        Europe: Pre-1913

N34        Europe: 1913-

N35        Asia including Middle East

N36        Latin America • Caribbean

N37        Africa • Oceania


N4          Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation

N40        General, International, or Comparative

N41        U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N42        U.S. • Canada: 1913–

N43        Europe: Pre-1913

N44        Europe: 1913–

N45        Asia including Middle East

N46        Latin America • Caribbean

N47        Africa • Oceania


N5          Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment, and Extractive Industries

N50        General, International, or Comparative

N51        U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N52        U.S. • Canada: 1913–

N53        Europe: Pre-1913

N54        Europe: 1913–

N55        Asia including Middle East

N56        Latin America • Caribbean

N57        Africa • Oceania


N6          Manufacturing and Construction

N60        General, International, or Comparative

N61        U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N62        U.S. • Canada: 1913–

N63        Europe: Pre-1913

N64        Europe: 1913–

N65        Asia including Middle East

N66        Latin America • Caribbean

N67        Africa • Oceania


N7          Transport, Trade, Energy, Technology, and Other Services

N70        General, International, or Comparative

N71        U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N72        U.S. • Canada: 1913–

N73        Europe: Pre-1913

N74        Europe: 1913–

N75        Asia including Middle East

N76        Latin America • Caribbean

N77        Africa • Oceania


N8          Micro-Business History

N80        General, International, or Comparative

N81        U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N82        U.S. • Canada: 1913–

N83        Europe: Pre-1913

N84        Europe: 1913–

N85        Asia including Middle East

N86        Latin America • Caribbean

N87        Africa • Oceania


N9          Regional and Urban History

N90        General, International, or Comparative

N91        U.S. • Canada: Pre-1913

N92        U.S. • Canada: 1913–

N93        Europe: Pre-1913

N94        Europe: 1913–

N95        Asia including Middle East

N96        Latin America • Caribbean

N97        Africa • Oceania


  1. Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth


O1          Economic Development

O10        General

O11        Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

O12        Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

O13        Agriculture • Natural Resources • Energy • Environment • Other Primary Products

O14        Industrialization • Manufacturing and Service Industries • Choice of Technology

O15        Human Resources • Human Development • Income Distribution • Migration

O16        Financial Markets • Saving and Capital Investment • Corporate Finance and Governance

O17        Formal and Informal Sectors • Shadow Economy • Institutional Arrangements

O18        Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis • Housing • Infrastructure

O19        International Linkages to Development • Role of International Organizations


O2          Development Planning and Policy

O20        General

O21        Planning Models • Planning Policy

O22        Project Analysis

O23        Fiscal and Monetary Policy in Development

O24        Trade Policy • Factor Movement Policy • Foreign Exchange Policy

O25        Industrial Policy

O29        Other


O3          Innovation • Research and Development • Technological Change • Intellectual Property Rights

O30        General

O31        Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives

O32        Management of Technological Innovation and R&D

O33        Technological Change: Choices and Consequences • Diffusion Processes

O34        Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital

O35        Social Innovation

O38        Government Policy

O39        Other


O4          Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity

O40        General

O41        One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models

O42        Monetary Growth Models

O43        Institutions and Growth

O44        Environment and Growth

O47        Empirical Studies of Economic Growth • Aggregate Productivity • Cross-Country Output Convergence

O49        Other


O5          Economywide Country Studies

O50        General

O51        U.S. • Canada

O52        Europe

O53        Asia including Middle East

O54        Latin America • Caribbean

O55        Africa

O56        Oceania

O57        Comparative Studies of Countries


  1. Economic Systems


P00        General


P1           Capitalist Systems

P10        General

P11        Planning, Coordination, and Reform

P12        Capitalist Enterprises

P13        Cooperative Enterprises

P14        Property Rights

P16        Political Economy

P17        Performance and Prospects

P18        Energy • Environment

P19        Other


P2           Socialist Systems and Transitional Economies

P20        General

P21        Planning, Coordination, and Reform

P22        Prices

P23        Factor and Product Markets • Industry Studies • Population

P24        National Income, Product, and Expenditure • Money • Inflation

P25        Urban, Rural, and Regional Economics

P26        Political Economy • Property Rights

P27        Performance and Prospects

P28        Natural Resources • Energy • Environment

P29        Other


P3           Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions

P30        General

P31        Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions

P32        Collectives • Communes • Agriculture

P33        International Trade, Finance, Investment, Relations, and Aid

P34        Financial Economics

P35        Public Economics

P36        Consumer Economics • Health • Education and Training • Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty

P37        Legal Institutions • Illegal Behavior

P39        Other


P4           Other Economic Systems

P40        General

P41        Planning, Coordination, and Reform

P42        Productive Enterprises • Factor and Product Markets • Prices • Population

P43        Public Economics • Financial Economics

P44        National Income, Product, and Expenditure • Money • Inflation

P45        International Trade, Finance, Investment, and Aid

P46        Consumer Economics • Health • Education and Training • Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty

P47        Performance and Prospects

P48        Political Economy • Legal Institutions • Property Rights • Natural Resources • Energy • Environment • Regional Studies

P49        Other


P5           Comparative Economic Systems

P50        General

P51        Comparative Analysis of Economic Systems

P52        Comparative Studies of Particular Economies

P59        Other


  1. Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics • Environmental and Ecological Economics


Q00        General

Q01        Sustainable Development

Q02        Commodity Markets


Q1          Agriculture

Q10        General

Q11        Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis • Prices

Q12        Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets

Q13        Agricultural Markets and Marketing • Cooperatives • Agribusiness

Q14        Agricultural Finance

Q15        Land Ownership and Tenure • Land Reform • Land Use • Irrigation • Agriculture and Environment

Q16        R&D • Agricultural Technology • Biofuels • Agricultural Extension Services

Q17        Agriculture in International Trade

Q18        Agricultural Policy • Food Policy

Q19        Other


Q2          Renewable Resources and Conservation

Q20        General

Q21        Demand and Supply • Prices

Q22        Fishery • Aquaculture

Q23        Forestry

Q24        Land

Q25        Water

Q26        Recreational Aspects of Natural Resources

Q27        Issues in International Trade

Q28        Government Policy

Q29        Other


Q3          Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation

Q30        General

Q31        Demand and Supply • Prices

Q32        Exhaustible Resources and Economic Development

Q33        Resource Booms

Q34        Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts

Q35        Hydrocarbon Resources

Q37        Issues in International Trade

Q38        Government Policy

Q39        Other


Q4          Energy

Q40        General

Q41        Demand and Supply • Prices

Q42        Alternative Energy Sources

Q43        Energy and the Macroeconomy

Q47        Energy Forecasting

Q48        Government Policy

Q49        Other


Q5          Environmental Economics

Q50        General

Q51        Valuation of Environmental Effects

Q52        Pollution Control Adoption and Costs • Distributional Effects • Employment Effects

Q53        Air Pollution • Water Pollution • Noise • Hazardous Waste • Solid Waste • Recycling

Q54        Climate • Natural Disasters and Their Management • Global Warming

Q55        Technological Innovation

Q56        Environment and Development • Environment and Trade • Sustainability • Environmental Accounts and Accounting • Environmental Equity • Population Growth

Q57        Ecological Economics: Ecosystem Services • Biodiversity Conservation • Bioeconomics • Industrial Ecology

Q58        Government Policy

Q59        Other


  1. Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics


R00        General


R1           General Regional Economics

R10        General

R11        Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes

R12        Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity

R13        General Equilibrium and Welfare Economic Analysis of Regional Economies

R14        Land Use Patterns

R15        Econometric and Input–Output Models • Other Models

R19        Other


R2           Household Analysis

R20        General

R21        Housing Demand

R22        Other Demand

R23        Regional Migration • Regional Labor Markets • Population • Neighborhood Characteristics

R28        Government Policy

R29        Other


R3           Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location

R30        General

R31        Housing Supply and Markets

R32        Other Spatial Production and Pricing Analysis

R33        Nonagricultural and Nonresidential Real Estate Markets

R38        Government Policy

R39        Other


R4           Transportation Economics

R40        General

R41        Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion • Travel Time • Safety and Accidents • Transportation Noise

R42        Government and Private Investment Analysis • Road Maintenance • Transportation Planning

R48        Government Pricing and Policy

R49        Other


R5           Regional Government Analysis

R50        General

R51        Finance in Urban and Rural Economies

R52        Land Use and Other Regulations

R53        Public Facility Location Analysis • Public Investment and Capital Stock

R58        Regional Development Planning and Policy

R59        Other


  1. Miscellaneous Categories


Y1           Data: Tables and Charts

Y10         Data: Tables and Charts


Y2           Introductory Material

Y20         Introductory Material


Y3           Book Reviews (unclassified)

Y30         Book Reviews (unclassified)


Y4           Dissertations (unclassified)

Y40         Dissertations (unclassified)


Y5           Further Reading (unclassified)

Y50         Further Reading (unclassified)


Y6           Excerpts

Y60         Excerpts


Y7           No Author General Discussions

Y70         No Author General Discussions


Y8           Related Disciplines

Y80         Related Disciplines


Y9           Other

Y90         Other

Y91         Pictures and Maps

Y92         Novels, Self-Help Books, etc.


  1. Other Special Topics


Z00         General


Z1           Cultural Economics • Economic Sociology • Economic Anthropology

Z10         General

Z11         Economics of the Arts and Literature

Z12         Religion

Z13         Economic Sociology • Economic Anthropology • Language • Social and Economic Stratification †

Z18         Public Policy

Z19         Other


Z2           Sports Economics

Z20         General

Z21         Industry Studies

Z22         Labor Issues

Z23         Finance

Z28         Policy

Z29         Other


Z3           Tourism Economics

Z30         General

Z31         Industry Studies

Z32         Tourism and Development

Z33         Marketing and Finance

Z38         Policy

Z39         Other